Apply 30-50 lb nitrogen per acre to strengthen cool-season grass pastures and grass hay fields.

If not already done, inventory hay supplies and assess hay quality. Hay prices are increasing.

Using a grazing stick or rising plate meter, estimate stockpile forage available for winter grazing.

Adjust animal numbers or purchase additional hay to balance forage-feed supply to livestock needs.

Graze crop residues and cover crops that are 6-8 inches tall and are well anchored. Do NOT graze closer to 4 inches.

Graze winter annuals that will not overwinter such as brassicas and spring oats.

Alkaloid content in tall fescue can also be high in the fall some years, but will begin decline after a hard freeze (low 20's).

Talk to local NRCS conservationists about a grazing plan and cost-share opportunities.