Apply 30-40 lbs N/acre to strengthen cool-season grass sods going into winter.

If not already done, inventory hay and assess hay quality.

Using a plate meter or grazing stick, estimate stockpile available for winter grazing.

Adjust animal numbers or purchase additional hay to balance forage-feed supply to livestock needs.

Graze crop residues and cover crops that will not overwinter. Be careful to avoid fields that contain johnsongrass that have recently frosted.

Graze winter annuals that will not overwinter such as brassicas and oats.

Graze other winter annuals once they are 6-8 inches tall and are well anchored. Do NOT graze closer to 4 inches.

Sugar content will rise in tall fescue with the cool temperatures and short days of fall. Alkaloid content of tall fescue can also be high in certain years, but will begin decline after a hard freeze.

Talk with local conservationist about developing a grazing plan and cost-share opportunities.